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Gardener and researcher John Jeavons asked the question, “What is the optimum way to grow enough food for one person on the smallest amount of land possible in a way that is self-fertile and ecologically sustainable in the long term?” After decades of research and testing, he developed the biointensive approach. Biointensive is essentially veganic by default, as raising animals takes up too much space and resources.

The garden soil is loosened with double-digging, so root systems can go deeper instead of competing for space near the surface. Plants are grown densely, and plants are chosen that will meet our year-round nutritional needs.

Learn more about the biointensive approach from the non-profit organization Ecology Action (, from their free online self-teaching handbooks and videos, and from Jeavon’s instructive gardening books, including How to Grow More Vegetables than you Ever Thought Possible on Less Land than you Can Imagine.

This article will be expanded in the future—check back for updates.

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